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Lactantius preserves the answer of the pagans so attacked De origine Erroris, ii. Dazzled, as it were, with the brilliancy of his own discovery, concentrated in attention on the one necessity for organizing a powerful coherent nation, he forgot that men are more than political beings.

It was, however, Berkeley who first sought to utilize the conclusions that were implicit in Locke's starting-point to disprove " the systems of impious and profane persons which exclude all freeedom, intelligence, and design from the formation of things, and instead thereof make a selfexistent, stupid, unthinking substance the root and origin of all beings. Shelley 4to, London, , in the coloured plates of which full justice is done to the varied beauties which these gloriously arrayed little beings display, while almost every available source of information has been consulted and the results embodied.

The ceremonies of his worship were of the most bloodthirsty character, and hundreds of human beings were murdered annually before his shrine, their limbs being eaten by his worshippers. In polytheism the grades of superhuman beings are continuous; but in monotheism there is a sharp distinction of kind, as well as degree, between God on the one hand, and all other superhuman beings on the other; the latter are the " angels.

Hence they came to be used collectively of superhuman beings , distinct from Yahweh, and therefore inferior, and ultimately subordinate. There are, however, a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim. Thus the pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say about angels or about superhuman beings other than Yahweh and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mention angels. The doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed in the period immediately before and during the Exile, in Deuteronomy" and Isaiah; and at the same time we find angels prominent in Ezekiel who, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism.

The creeds and confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; and modern rationalism has tended to deny the existence of such beings , or to regard the subject as one on which we can have no certain knowledge. The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the existence of beings intermediate between man and God. While the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence of spiritual beings intermediate between God, and men, it is probable that many of the details may be regarded merely as symbolic imagery.

Nok Khum is one of the theories of the genesis of mankind, the Nok Khum being the sacred goose or "Hansa" from whose eggs the first human beings were supposed to have been hatched. In the latter sense it was chiefly used by the Gnostic sects to denote those eternal beings or manifestations which emanated from the one incomprehensible and ineffable God. Thus, at Sparta, under the name of Theritas, he was offered young dogs and even human beings. All collections of living beings are subject to epidemics, and in an ideal menagerie special precautions should be taken. The word is now generally a synonym for "monkey," but the common verb for both as transferred figuratively to human beings is "to ape," i.

These epistles took their form at once from a natural progression of thought and from a new phase of controversy, a sort of Gnosticizing theory, or theories, which perverted Christian practice and impaired the supremacy of Christ by placing other beings or entities by His side. Moreover, in the unbridled exercise of speculation, the number of divine beings was increased indefinitely; and these fantastic accessions to l Olympus in the system of Iamblichus show that Greek philosophy 'is returning to mythology, and that nature-religion is still a power in the world.

It not unfrequently attacks human beings in India, chiefly children and old women, but instances have been known of a leopard becoming a regular "man-eater. A combination of the Babylonian with the Persian religion could only be effected by the degradation of the Babylonian deities into half-divine, half-daemonic beings , infinitely remote from the supreme God of light and of heaven, or even into powers of darkness. Tylor, the doctrine of spiritual beings , including human souls; in practice, however, the term is often extended to include panthelism or animatism, the doctrine that a great part, if not the whole, of the inanimate kingdom, as well as all animated beings , are endowed with reason, intelligence and volition, identical with that of man.

Not only human beings but animals and objects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion may have been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology posited a spirit in a man to account, amongst other things, for his actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external world would be that they are due to the operations and volitions of spirits. Two animistic theories of the origin of religion have been put forward, the one, often termed the "ghost theory," mainly associated with the name of Herbert Spencer, but also maintained by Grant Allen, refers the beginning of religion to the cult of dead human beings ; the other, put forward by Dr E.

At the same time, with the rise of ideas as to a future life and spiritual beings , this field of mythology is immensely widened, though it cannot be said that a rich mythology is necessarily genetically associated with or combined with belief in many spiritual beings. They consider killing, violence, and in general all relations to living beings not based on love as opposed to their conscience and to the will of God.

They are dipped in water, which is given to ailing cattle and human beings as a sovereign remedy for diseases. Gervaise of Tilbury, writing early in the 13th century, has in his Otia Imperialia a chapter, De lamiis et nocturnis larvis, where he gives it out, as proved by individuals beyond all exception, that men have been lovers of beings of this kind whom they call Fadas, and who did in case of infidelity or infringement of secrecy inflict terrible punishment - the loss of goods and even of life.

There seems little in the characteristics of these fairies of romance to distinguish them from human beings , except their supernatural knowledge and power. But an account of such ceremonies belongs rather to demonology than to the history of the worship of Manes, which are peaceful, well-conducted and beneficent beings , endowed and, so to speak on the foundation, like the Christian souls for whose masses money has been left. Such a theory, like its modern rival of the sun-myth, may of course be pushed till it becomes absurd; yet in India critical observers, like Sir Alfred C.

Lyall, attest innumerable examples of the gradual elevation into gods of human beings , the process even beginning in their lifetime. From the contradictory character of the world he concludes the existence of two beings , originally quite separate from each other - light and darkness. But if the first human beings thus stood entirely under the dominion of the devil, the glorious spirits took them under their care from the very outset, sending aeons down to them including Jesus , who instructed them regarding their nature, and in particular warned Adam against sensuality.

Rice, which shares with millet the distinction of being the principal food-stuff of the greatest number of human beings , is not grown nearly as widely as is wheat, the staple food of the white races. She was able by means of drugs and incantations to change human beings into the forms of wolves or lions, and with these beings her palace was surrounded. Similar beings seem to have been known among other Teutonic peoples in early times.

In the north, indeed, the name Grimhildr continued to have a purely mythical character and to be applied only to daemonic beings ; but in Germany, the original home of the Nibelungen myth, it certainly lost all trace of this significance, and in the Nibelungenlied Kriemhild is no more than a beautiful princess, the daughter of King Dancrat and Queen Uote, and sister of the Burgundian kings Gunther, Giselher and Gernot, the masters of the Nibelungen hoard.

Though less superstitious than the Tahitians, the idolatry of the Sandwich Islanders was equally barbarous and sanguinary, as, in addition to the chief objects of worship included in the mythology of the other islands, the supernatural beings supposed to reside in the volcanoes and direct the action of subterranean fires rendered the gods objects of peculiar terror.

Aristotle had imputed to all living beings a soul, though to plants only in the sense of a vegetative, not a sensitive, activity, and in Moleschott's time many scientific men still accepted some sort of vital principle, not exactly soul, yet over and above bodily forces in organisms. Moleschott, like Lotze, not only resisted the whole hypothesis of a vital principle, but also, on the basis of Lavoisier's discovery that respiration is combustion, argued that the heat so produced is the only force developed in the organism, and that matter therefore rules man. A second argument for God is the prevailing goodness or adaptation of Nature to the ends of conscious beings , which might conceivably be explained by Lamarckian evolution, but has not yet been so explained, and if it were, would not be inconsistent with a divine design in evolution.

Further, the very existence of conscious beings is the best proof of the distinct or substantial being of the soul, existing in man with body, in God as pure spirit. Like Leibnitz, he proceeds from the fact that our perceptions are sometimes conscious, sometimes unconscious, to the inconsequent conclusion, that there are beings with nothing but unconscious perceptions; and by a similar non sequitur, because there is the idea of an end in will, he argues that there must be an unconscious idea of an end in instinctive, in reflex, in all action.

In either case, the effective power of inference, which makes us rational beings , is gone. In the text he explains that, if there were a plurality of reals, they would have to be beings independent of each other, and yet, as a plurality related to each other - and this again seems to him to be a contradiction. The chief results we have found against materialism are that bodies evolving account neither for the origin of themselves, their nature, and their fundamental order of resemblance and difference, nor for the nature and origin of consciousness, nor even as yet for their becoming good for conscious beings.

If it is not always easy to distinguish between gods and heroes, there is still greater difficulty in drawing a line between the former and other classes of supernatural beings , such as the " giants " O. Human beings , especially kings and other distinguished persons, were not infrequently honoured with worship after death. Besides the various classes of beings to the worship of which we have already referred, we hear occasionally also of sacred animals.

These beings are doubtless due in part to poetic imagination, but underlying this there may be a substratum of primitive religious belief. One of the most striking conceptions of Northern mythology is that of the " world-tree," Yggdrasil's Ash, which sheltered all living beings see Yggdrasil. Generally it is found singly or in pairs, or at most in small herds of from eight to ten, and is not inclined to attack other animals or human beings. The savage explains the processes of inanimate nature by assuming that living beings or spirits, possessed of capacities similar to his own, are within the inanimate object.

The growth of a tree, the spark struck from a flint, the devastating floods of a river, mean to him the natural actions of beings within the tree, stone or water. It is in the first place a matter of common knowledge that human beings who have been taught to avoid handling bees invariably fear to touch drone-flies, unless specially trained to distinguish the one from the others. So close indeed is the similarity that many monkeys, apes and human beings have an apparently instinctive fear of all snakes and do not discriminate between poisonous and non-poisonous forms.

Hence it may be that innocuous snakes are in many instances sufficiently protected by their likeness in shape to poisonous species that close and exact resemblance in colour to particular species is superfluous. The root idea arises from the analogy of the acts of human beings which are observed to have certain purposes: hence it was natural to assume that the whole sum of existence with its amazing complexity and its orderly progress can be explained only on the assumption of a similar plan devised by a conscious agent.

This proposition, however, has been conclusively shown to be erroneous, there being no such difference of law between the increase of man and that of the organic beings which form his food. Its distinctive doctrines are: 1 that all created beings , spiritual or corporeal, are composed of matter and form, the various species of matter being but varieties of the universal matter, and similarly all forms being contained in one universal form; 2 that between the primal One and the intellect the y olk of Plotinus there is interposed the divine Will, which is itself divine and above the distinction of form and matter, but is the cause of their union in the being next to itself, the intellect, in which Avicebron holds that the distinction does exist.

In the modern days of machine-made black tea, produced under British supervision, both the tea-taster and the ordinary consumer have to deal with a product which, if carefully converted into a beverage and used in moderation, should be harmless to all normal human beings.

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Though he seems to have had a warm affection for his countrymen, it was as human beings brought into contact with him, and not as members of a political body, that he preferred to regard them. Epicureanism generally was content to affirm that whatever we effectively feel in consciousness is real; in which sense they allow reality to the fancies of the insane, the dreams of a sleeper, and those feelings by which we imagine the existence of beings of perfect blessedness and endless life. She was gone; and in that vast labyrinth of streets, peopled by eight hundred thousand human beings , he was alone.

Rothe regards the natural man as the consummation of the development of physical nature, and obtains spirit as the personal attainment, with divine help, of those beings in whom the further creative process of moral development is carried on. In such theories not only animals and plants but even the smallest particles of matter are regarded as having some rudimentary kind of sensation or "soul," which plays the same part in relation to their objective activities or modifications as the soul does in the case of human beings.

A very remarkable case is that of the two verses in liii. Idolatry and all deification of created beings , such as the worship of Christ as the Son of God, are unsparingly condemned. The effect of the localization of gods in many different places was to give them a double aspect; so, for instance, Khnum the god of Elephantine could in one minute be regarded as identical with n as entirely separate beings.

Numberless semi-divine beings had no r purpose than to fill,out the myths, as, for instance, the tering apes that greeted the sun-god Re as he rose above eastern horizon, and the demons who opened the gates of nether world at the approach of the setting sun. The foolishness and obstinacy of the ass has caused the name to be transferred metaphorically to human beings ; and the fifth proposition of Book i. Love is in Pali Metta, and the Metta Sutta 4 says no doubt with reference to the Right Mindfulness just described :" As a mother, even at the risk of her own life, protects her son, her only son, so let him cultivate love without measure towards all beings.

Clement, however, was near death when they arrived. But in he was again imprisoned for upwards of ten years. At the intercession of some English noblemen he was at last released, and spent his remaining years at Oxford. He possessed one of the most commanding intellects of his own, or perhaps of any, age, and, notwithstanding all the disadvantages and discouragements to which he was subjected, made many discoveries, and came near to many more.

There is still preserved at Oxford a rectified calendar in which he approximates closely to the truth. He received the sobriquet of the "Doctor Mirabilis. Bage, Robert It was not until he was 53 that he took to literature; but in the 15 years following he produced 6 novels, of which Sir Walter Scott says that "strong mind, playful fancy, and extensive knowledge are everywhere apparent. He was an amiable and benevolent man, and highly esteemed.

Hermsprong; or, Man as He is Not is considered the best of his novels, of which it was the last. Bagehot, Walter He wrote for various periodicals, and from was editor of The Economist. He was the author of The English Constitution , a standard work which was translated into several languages; Physics and Politics , and Lombard Street , a valuable financial work.

A collection of essays, biographical and economic, was pub. Bailey, Philip James His life was a singularly uneventful one. He travelled a good deal on the Continent. He was by profession a barrister, but never practised, and devoted his whole energies to poetry. His first poem, Festus , is, for the daring of its theme and the imaginative power and moral altitude which it displays, one of the most notable of the century; as the work of one little past boyhood it is a prodigy of intellectual precocity.

It was pub. Among its greatest admirers was Tennyson. The subsequent poems of B. Baillie, Joanna Her mother was a sister of the great anatomists, William and John Hunter , and her brother was the celebrated physician, Matthew B. She received a thorough education at Glasgow, and at an early age went to London, where the remainder of her long, happy, and honoured, though uneventful, life was passed. In , when she was 36, the first vol. In all her works there are many passages of true and impressive poetry, but the idea underlying her Plays on the Passions , that, namely, of exhibiting the principal character as acting under the exclusive influence of one passion, is artificial and untrue to nature.

Baillie, Lady Grizel In her childhood she showed remarkable courage and address in the services she rendered to her father and his friend, Robert Baillie of Jerviswoode, the eminent Scottish patriot, when under persecution. She left many pieces both prose and verse in MS. The best known is the beautiful song, Were na my heart licht I wad die. Baillie, Robert His abilities soon made him a leading man.

He was a member of the historic Assembly of , when Presbyterianism was re-established in Scotland, and also of the Westminster Assembly, In he was made Professor of Divinity in Glasgow, and 10 years later Principal. Laing q. He was one of the wisest and most temperate churchmen of his time. Bain, Alexander In he was elected Lord Rector of Aberdeen University.

Baker, Sir Richard It has, however, many errors. It was during his durance that the Chronicle and some religious treatises were composed. Baker, Sir Samuel White His books, which are all on travel and sport, are well written and include Albert Nyanza , Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia Bale, John After undergoing persecution and flying to Flanders, he was brought back by Edward VI.

On the death of Edward he was again persecuted, and had to escape from Ireland to Holland, but returned on the accession of Elizabeth, who made him a Prebendary of Canterbury. Besides this he wrote some dramas on scriptural subjects, and an account of the trial and death of Sir John Oldcastle. He wrote in all 22 plays, of which only 5 have come down, the names of certain of which give some idea of their nature, e.

Ballantine, James He studied art, and became one of the first to revive the art of glass-painting, on which subject he wrote a treatise. Ballantyne, Robert Michael As a youth he spent some years in the service of the Hudson's Bay Co. In he took to literature as a profession, and pub. Bancroft, George Returning to America he began his History of the United States The work covers the period from the discovery of the Continent to the conclusion of the Revolutionary War in His writing is clear and vigorous, and his facts generally accurate, but he is a good deal of a partisan.

Banim, John The object which he set before himself was to become to Ireland what Scott has been to Scotland, and the influence of his model is distinctly traceable in his writings. His strength lies in the delineation of the characters of the Irish lower classes, and the impulses, often misguided and criminal, by which they are influenced, and in this he has shown remarkable power.

The first series of the O'Hara Tales appeared in , the second in Most of these deal with the darker and more painful phases of life, but the feeling shown in the last-named is brighter and tenderer. He also wrote some poems, including The Celt's Paradise , and one or two plays. Bannatyne, Richard d. Barbauld, Anna Letitia John Aikin q. Her f. In she pub. Barbauld, a French Protestant and dissenting minister, who also conducted a school near Palgrave in Suffolk. Into this enterprise Mrs. Meantime, she continued her literary occupations, and brought out various devotional works, including her Hymns in Prose for Children.

These were followed by Evenings at Home , Selections from the English Essayists , The Letters of Samuel Richardson , with a life prefixed, and a selection from the British novelists with introductory essay. Barbour, John ? He entered the Church, and rose to ecclesiastical preferment and Royal favour. He is known to have been Archdeacon of Aberdeen in , when, and again in , he went with some young scholars to Oxford, and he also held various civil offices in connection with the exchequer and the King's household.

His principal poem, The Bruce , was in progress in It consists of 14, octosyllabic lines, and celebrates the praises of Robert the Bruce and James Douglas, the flowers of Scottish chivalry. This poem is almost the sole authority on the history it deals with, but is much more than a rhyming chronicle; it contains many fine descriptive passages, and sings the praises of freedom. Its style is somewhat bald and severe. Other poems ascribed to B. Machar until the Reformation. The Bruce , edited by C. Innes for Spalding Club , and for Early Engl.

Text Soc. Skeat, ; and for Scott. Brown, ; G. Neilson in Chambers' Cyc. Barclay, Alexander ? He is remembered for his satirical poem, The Ship of Fools , partly a translation, which is of interest as throwing light on the manners and customs of the times to which it refers. His style is stiff and his verse uninspired.

Ly - New General Catalog of Old Books & Authors

Barclay, John He wrote several works in English and Latin, among which are Euphormionis Satyricon , against the Jesuits, and Argenis , a political romance, resembling in certain respects the Arcadia of Sidney, and the Utopia of More. Barclay, Robert David B. This he refused to do, and, returning to Scotland, he in adopted the principles of the Quakers as his f.

His great work, however, is his Apology for the Quakers , pub. It is a weighty and learned work, written in a dignified style, and was eagerly read. It, however, failed to arrest the persecution to which the Quakers were exposed, and B. He was one of the twelve Quakers who acquired East New Jersey, of which he was appointed nominal Governor. His latter years were spent at his estate of Ury, where he d. The essential view which B. His works have often been reprinted. Barham, Richard Harris Paul's School and Oxford, entered the church, held various incumbencies, and was Divinity Lecturer, and minor canon of St.

It is not, however, as a churchman that he is remembered, but as the author of the Ingoldsby Legends , a series of comic and serio-comic pieces in verse, sparkling with wit, and full of striking and often grotesque turns of expression, which appeared first in Bentley's Miscellany. Barlow, Joel He was much less successful as a poet than as a man of affairs. His writings include Vision of Columbus , afterwards expanded into the Columbiad , The Conspiracy of Kings , and The Hasty Pudding , a mock-heroic poem, his best work.

These are generally pompous and dull. In he was app. Barnard, Lady Anne Lindsay On the d. Her exquisite ballad of Auld Robin Gray was written in , and pub. She confessed the authorship to Sir Walter Scott in Barnes, Barnabe ? Richard B. Bishop, of Durham, was b. When at his best he showed a true poetic vein. Barnes, William He first contributed to a newspaper, Poems in Dorset Dialect , separately pub.

Hwomely Rhymes followed in , and a collected edition of his poems appeared in Barnfield, Richard The Affectionate Shepherd , a collection of variations in graceful verse of the 2nd Eclogue of Virgil. His next work was Cynthia, with certain Sonnets and the Legend of Cassandra in ; and in there appeared a third vol. From this time, , B. He was for long neglected; but his poetry is clear, sweet, and musical.

His gift indeed is sufficiently attested by work of his having passed for that of Shakespeare. Barrow, Isaac Asaph, was a Fellow. As a boy he was turbulent and pugnacious, but soon took to hard study, distinguishing himself in classics and mathematics. Intending originally to enter the Church, he was led to think of the medical profession, and engaged in scientific studies, but soon reverted to his first views.

In he became candidate for the Greek Professorship at Cambridge, but was unsuccessful, and travelled for four years on the Continent as far as Turkey. On his return he took orders, and, in , obtained the Greek Chair at Cambridge, and in the Gresham Professorship of Geometry, which he resigned on being appointed first Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in the same university. During his tenure of this chair he pub.

In he resigned in favour of his pupil, Isaac Newton, who was long considered his only superior among English mathematicians. He was made a D. Besides the works above mentioned, he wrote other important treatises on mathematics, but in literature his place is chiefly supported by his sermons, which are masterpieces of argumentative eloquence, while his treatise on the Pope's Supremacy is regarded as one of the most perfect specimens of controversy in existence.

Barton, Bernard He became the friend of Southey, Lamb, and other men of letters. His chief works are The Convict's Appeal , a protest against the severity of the criminal code of the time, and Household Verses , which came under the notice of Sir R. With the exception of some hymns his works are now nearly forgotten, but he was a most amiable and estimable man -- simple and sympathetic. His dau. Lucy, who married Edward Fitzgerald, the translator of Omar Khayyam , pub.

Baynes, Thomas Spencer Hamilton q. After working as ed.

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In he was appointed Prof. Andrews, in which capacity his mind was drawn to the study of Shakespeare, and he contributed to the Edinburgh Review and Fraser's Magazine valuable papers chiefly relating to his vocabulary and the extent of his learning afterwards collected as Shakespeare Studies. In he was appointed to superintend the ninth ed. Robertson Smith q. Baxter, Richard Circumstances led to his turning his attention to a career at court under the patronage of the Master of the Revels, but a short experience of this sufficed; and giving himself to the Christian ministry, he was ordained in , and, after being master of a school at Dudley, exercised his ministry successively at Bridgnorth and Kidderminster.

His learning and capacity for business made him the leader of the Presbyterian party. He was one of the greatest preachers of his own day, and consistently endeavoured to exert a moderating influence, with the result that he became the object of attack by extremists of opposing views. Though siding with the Parliament in the Civil War, he opposed the execution of the King and the assumption of supreme power by Cromwell. During the war he served with the army as a chaplain.

On the return of Charles II. He subsequently suffered persecution at the hands of Judge Jeffreys. After the Revolution he had a few years of peace and quiet. His literary activity was marvellous in spite of ill-health and outward disturbance. Isaac Barrow says that "his practical writings were never mended, and his controversial seldom confuted," and Dean Stanley calls him "the chief English Protestant schoolman. Practical Works in 23 vols. Orme, also Lives by A. Grosart , Dean Boyle , and J. Davies Bayly, Ada Ellen d.

Bayly, Thomas Haynes Originally intended for the law, he changed his mind and thought of entering the Church, but abandoned this idea also, and gave himself to writing for the stage and the periodical press. He is chiefly known for his songs, of which he wrote hundreds, which, set to the music of Bishop and other eminent composers, found universal acceptance. Some were set to his own music. He also wrote several novels and a number of farces, etc. Although making a large income from his writings, in addition to that of his wife, he fell into embarrassed circumstances. He may be regarded as, excepting Moore, the most popular song writer of his time.

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli , 1st Earl of Belonging to a Jewish family settled first in Spain, whence in the 15th century they migrated to Italy, he was b. His f. The law was, however, uncongenial, and he had already begun to write. After some journalistic work, he brought himself into general notice by the publication, in , of his first novel, Vivian Grey , which created a sensation by its brilliance, audacity, and slightly veiled portraits of living celebrities.

These works had gained for him a brilliant, if not universally admitted, place in literature. But his ambition was by no means confined to literary achievement; he aimed also at fame as a man of action. After various unsuccessful attempts to enter Parliament, in which he stood, first as a Radical, and then as a Tory, he was in returned for Maidstone, having for his colleague Mr. Wyndham Lewis, whose widow he afterwards married. For some years after entering on his political career, D. His first speech was a total failure, being received with shouts of laughter, but with characteristic courage and perseverance he pursued his course, gradually rose to a commanding position in parliament and in the country, became leader of his party, was thrice Chancellor of the Exchequer, , , and , in which last year he became Prime Minister, which office he again held from till To return to his literary career, in he had pub.

Coningsby , followed by Sybil , and Tancred , and in he wrote a life of Lord G. Bentinck, his predecessor in the leadership of the Protectionist party. His last novels were Lothair , and Endymion He was raised to the peerage as Earl of Beaconsfield in , and was a Knight of the Garter. In his later years he was the intimate friend as well as the trusted minister of Queen Victoria.

The career of D. With no family or political influence, and with some personal characteristics, and the then current prejudices in regard to his race to contend with, he rose by sheer force of will and intellect to the highest honours attainable in this country. His most marked qualities were an almost infinite patience and perseverance, indomitable courage, a certain spaciousness of mind, and depth of penetration, and an absolute confidence in his own abilities, aided by great powers of debate rising occasionally to eloquence.

Though the object, first of a kind of contemptuous dislike, then of an intense opposition, he rose to be universally regarded as, at all events, a great political force, and by a large part of the nation as a great statesman. As a writer he is generally interesting, and his books teem with striking thoughts, shrewd maxims, and brilliant phrases which stick in the memory.

On the other hand he is often artificial, extravagant, and turgid, and his ultimate literary position is difficult to forecast. Lives by Froude , Hitchman , see also Dictionary of Nat. Beattie, James In the following year he pub. It contains much beautiful descriptive writing. The Essay on Truth and his other philosophical works are now forgotten. Beaumont, Francis and Fletcher, John As they are indissolubly associated in the history of English literature, it is convenient to treat of them in one place.

He was ed. He went to London and entered the Inner Temple in , and soon became acquainted with Ben Jonson, Drayton, and other poets and dramatists. His first work was a translation from Ovid, followed by commendatory verses prefixed to certain plays of Jonson. Soon afterwards his friendship with F. They lived in the same house and had practically a community of goods until B. He went to Cambridge, but it is not known whether he took a degree, though he had some reputation as a scholar.

His earliest play is The Woman Hater He is said to have died of the plague, and is buried in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark. The plays attributed to B. It is now generally agreed that others collaborated with them to some extent -- Massinger, Rowley, Shirley, and even Shakespeare. Of those believed to be the joint work of B.

Philaster and The Maid's Tragedy are considered the masterpieces, and are as dramas unmatched except by Shakespeare. The Two Noble Kinsmen is thought to contain the work of Shakespeare. As regards their respective powers, B. The former was the stronger in judgment, the latter in fancy. The plays contain many very beautiful lyrics, but are often stained by gross indelicacy.

Subjoined is a list of the plays with the authorship according to the latest authorities. Night Walker ? The latest ed. Bullen 11 vols. Waller 7 vols. Macaulay ; Lyric Poems of B. Rhys ; Bibliography , A. Potter in Harvard Bibliograph. Contributions , Beaumont, Sir John ? His poems, of which the best known is Bosworth Field , pub. Another, The Crown of Thorns , is lost. Beckford, William c.

In these circumstances he grew up wayward and extravagant, showing, however, a strong bent towards literature. His education was entrusted to a private tutor, with whom he travelled extensively on the Continent. At the age of 22 he produced his oriental romance, Vathek c. There is reason, however, to believe that this was a flight of imagination.

It is an impressive work, full of fantastic and magnificent conceptions, rising occasionally to sublimity. His other principal writings are Memoirs of Extraordinary Painters , a satirical work, and Letters from Italy with Sketches of Spain and Portugal , full of brilliant descriptions of scenes and manners. He sat in parliament for various constituencies, and one of his two dau. Beddoes, Thomas Lovell His next venture was The Bride's Tragedy , which had considerable success, and won for him the friendship of "Barry Cornwall. He then wandered about practising his profession, and expounding democratic theories which got him into trouble.

For some time before his death he had been engaged upon a drama, Death's Jest Book , which was published in with a memoir by his friend, T. Some of his short pieces, e. Ordained deacon in and priest in , he spent most of his days at Jarrow, where his fame as a scholar and teacher of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew brought him many disciples. Here likewise he d. The well-deserved title of "Venerable" usually prefixed to his name first appears in He was the most learned Englishman of his age. His industry was marvellous, and its results remain embodied in about 40 books, of which about 25 are commentaries on books of Scripture.

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The others are lives of saints and martyrs, and his two great works, The Ecclesiastical History of England and the scientific treatise, De Natura Rerum. In the anxious care with which he sought out and selected reliable information, and referred to authorities he shows the best qualities of the modern historian, and his style is remarkable for "a pleasing artlessness. History of Early Engl. Beecher, Henry Ward His writings, which had a wide popularity, include Summer in the Soul and Life Thoughts.

Behn, Aphra Johnston He, however, d. She became acquainted with the celebrated slave Oronoko, afterwards the hero of one of her novels. Returning to England in she m. Behn, a Dutch merchant, but was a widow at the age of She then became attached to the Court, and was employed as a political spy at Antwerp. The former are extremely gross, and are now happily little known. She was the first English professional authoress. The former of these was the first book to bring home to the country a sense of the horrors of slavery, for which let her have credit.

Bell, Henry Glassford He wrote a Life of Mary Queen of Scots , strongly in her defence, and two vols. Bellenden, or Ballantyne, John fl. Andrews and Paris. At the request of James V. This translation, Chroniklis of Scotland is a very free one, with a good deal of matter not in the original, so that it may be almost considered as a new work. He also translated the first five books of Livy. He enjoyed the Royal favour, and was Archdeacon of Moray. He latterly, however, became involved in controversy which led to his going to Rome, where he d.

Another authority, however, states that he was living in Bentham, Jeremy By the death of his f. The effect of his writings on legislation and the administration of the law has been almost incalculable. He left his body to be dissected; and his skeleton, clothed in his usual attire, is preserved in University College, London. Life by Bowring in collected works J. Barton, 11 vols. Study of Life and Work , Atkinson , Bentley, Richard Stillingfleet , Dean of St.

Paul's, afterwards Bishop of Worcester q. After taking his degree at both universities, and entering the Church, he laid the foundation of his reputation as perhaps the greatest scholar England has produced by his letter in Mill's ed. After receiving various preferments, including the Boyle lectureship and the Keepership of the Royal Library, he was, in , appointed Master of Trinity, and afterwards was, largely owing to his own pugnacity and rapacity, which were almost equal to his learning, involved in a succession of litigations and controversies.

These lasted for 20 years, and led to the temporary loss of his academic preferments and honours. In , however, he was appointed Regius Prof. During the contentions referred to he continued his literary activity without abatement, and pub. He was much less successful in certain emendations of Milton which he attempted. Having incurred the resentment of Pope he was rewarded by being assigned a niche in The Dunciad! His style is strong and nervous, and sparkles with wit and sarcasm.

His classical controversies called forth Swift's Battle of the Books. Life by Monk Life by Sir R. Jebb in English Men of Letters Beresford, James He made translations and wrote religious books, but was chiefly known as the author of a satirical work, The Miseries of Human Life Berkeley, George His earliest publication was a mathematical one; but the first which brought him into notice was his Essay towards a New Theory of Vision , pub. Though giving rise to much controversy at the time, its conclusions are now accepted as an established part of the theory of optics.

There next appeared in the Treatise concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge , which was followed in by Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous , in which he propounded his system of philosophy, the leading principle of which is that the world as represented to our senses depends for its existence on being perceived. Of this theory the Principles gives the exposition and the Dialogues the defence.

One of his main objects was to combat the prevailing materialism of the time. A theory so novel was, as might be expected, received with widespread ridicule, though his genius was realised by some of the more elect spirits, such as Dr. Shortly afterwards B. He then went to the Continent in various capacities, and on his return was made Lecturer in Divinity and Greek in his university, D. Disappointed of promised aid from Government he returned, and was appointed Bishop of Cloyne.

Soon afterwards he pub. His last publications were Siris , a treatise on the medicinal virtues of tar-water, and Further Thoughts on Tar-water. His affectionate disposition and genial manners made him much beloved. As a thinker his is the greatest name in English philosophy between Locke and Hume.

His style is clear and dignified. The best ed. Fraser's, with Life 4 vols. Berners, Bernes, or Barnes, Juliana b. Nothing of her real history is known, but statements more or less mythical have gathered round her name. The work attributed to her is The Boke of St. Albans She was said to be the dau.

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  6. Berners, John Bourchier , 2nd Lord He translated, at the King's desire, Froissart's Chronicles , in such a manner as to make distinct advance in English historical writing, and the Golden Book of Marcus Aurelius ; also The History of Arthur of Lytell Brytaine Brittany , and the romance of Huon of Bordeaux. Besant, Sir Walter He pub. Three years later he began his collaboration with James Rice q. Among their joint productions are Ready-money Mortiboy , and the Golden Butterfly , both, especially the latter, very successful.

    This connection was brought to an end by the death of Rice in Thereafter B. The two latter belonged to a series in which he endeavoured to arouse the public conscience to a sense of the sadness of life among the poorest classes in cities. In this crusade B. In addition to his work in fiction B. London under the Stuarts , London under the Tudors are historical. It had an immediate and far-reaching influence on Harvey's contemporaries.

    In the book, Harvey investigated the effect of ligatures on blood flow. The book also argued that blood was pumped around the body in a "double circulation", where after being returned to the heart, it is recirculated in a closed system to the lungs and back to the heart, where it is returned to the main circulation. Mount Vesuvius erupts. Galileo Galilei first describes the Principle of Relativity, the idea that the fundamental laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames and that, purely by observing the outcome of mechanical experiments, one cannot distinguish a state of rest from a state of constant velocity.

    Nicolaes Tulp shows Dr. Tulp explaining the musculature of the arm to medical professionals. Some of the spectators are various doctors who paid commissions to be included in the painting. The painting is signed in the top-left hand corner Rembrandt. This may be the first instance of Rembrandt signing a painting with his forename in its original form as opposed to the monogramme RHL Rembrandt Harmenszoon of Leiden , and is thus a sign of his growing artistic confidence.

    Under compulsion, Galileo rejects the Copernican system. Painting by Adriaen Brouwer : Tavern Scene. Brouwer left a small body of work amounting to about 60 works. Just a few of his works are signed, while none is dated. As Brouwer was widely copied, imitated and followed in his time, attributions of work to Brouwer are sometimes uncertain or contested. For instance, the The smoker Louvre showing a man exhaling smoke while holding a bottle of liquor was attributed for a long time to Brouwer, but is now given to Brouwer's follower and, possibly, pupil Joos van Craesbeeck.

    The principal subject matter of Brouwer are genre scenes with peasants, soldiers and other 'lower class' individuals engaging in drinking, smoking, card or dice playing, fights etc. Brouwer also contributed to the development of the genre of tronies, i. Jan Morris has called it "one of the most Spanish of all pictures". Painting by Frans Hals : Lucas de Clercq , a Dutch cloth merchant known today for his and his wife's pendant marriage portraits painted by Frans Hals. Colonial North America's slave trade begins when the first American slave carrier, Desire, is built and launched in Massachusetts.

    Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Justus Sustermans was a Flemish painter working in the Baroque style. He was born in Antwerp and died in Florence. Sustermans is chiefly notable for his portraits of members of the Medici family as he was their court painter.

    His work can be found in both the Palatina Gallery and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, and in many other galleries around the globe. A rare example of a work painted for the artist's own pleasure rather than for a commission, it shows a view of the Het Steen estate near Brussels, which he had acquired in , set in an early-morning autumn landscape. It has influenced artists including John Constable, during his period working for Sir George Beaumont, who then owned the painting and later donated it to the National Gallery in The painting features the first convincing depiction of a mackerel sky.

    The painting is the first of its kind in pictorial tradition. No other artist at the time had painted this specific narrative moment. This painting was a gift to the House of Orange, Rembrandt's current patron of a few commissioned paintings. Francesco Stelluti publishes a summary of research on fossil wood conducted by himself and fellow Lincean Academy member Federico Cesi. Though resulting from meticulous research, the work reaches the wrong conclusion, describing the origin of fossil wood as inorganic.

    Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Last Theorem , unsolved until This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin. Galileo Galilei demonstrates that unequal weights would fall with the same finite speed in a vacuum, and that their time of descent is independent of their mass.

    Thus, freely falling bodies, heavy or light, have the same constant acceleration, due to the force of gravity. Jeremiah Horrox observes the first transit of Venus. Horrox or Horrocks was an English astronomer. He was the first person to demonstrate that the Moon moved around the Earth in an elliptical orbit; and he was the only person to predict the transit of Venus of , an event which he and his friend William Crabtree were the only two people to observe and record. John Punch, a runaway black servant, is sentenced to servitude for life.

    His two white companions are given extended terms of servitude. Punch is the first documented slave for life. New Netherlands law forbids residents from harboring or feeding runaway slaves. Painting by Georges de La Tour : Magdalene with the Smoking Flame has been allotted the date of , by analogy with the Saint Mary with a Mirror, which has been dated between and During the 17th century, great devotion was shown to Mary Magdalene in all Catholic countries.

    She was the perfect lover of Christ, her beauty made yet more appealing by reason of her repentance, which had a special attraction for a period so passionately interested in problems of mysticism, quietism and asceticism. The theme of the repentance of sinners and trials sent by God is illustrated in such subjects as the Repentance of St. Peter, Mary Magdalene and Job. A number of written works give evidence of the cult of the Magdalene and this cult was the more widespread since Provence owned two great sanctuaries dedicated to her: the grotto of La Sainte-Baume, and the Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer.

    It has been suggested that Georges de La Tour took a gypsy as his model: at the time, there were many in Lorraine where he painted this picture. Massachusetts is the first colony to legalize slavery. The D'Angola marriage is the first recorded marriage between blacks in New Amsterdam. The Tokugawa Shogunate institutes Sakoku — foreigners are expelled and no one is allowed to enter or leave Japan.

    Permission is denied, but he will publish Men Before Adam anonymously 14 years later, inciting both outrage and mild amusement among religious leaders. Dutch anatomist Nicolaas Tulp produces the first formal description of an ape a chimp, bonobo or orangutan. Painting by Frans Hals : Regents of the St.

    Elizabeth Hospital. Painting by Simon Vouet : Presentation in the Temple. The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by the German amateur artist Ludwig von Siegen. Mezzotint is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method. It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching, cross-hatching or stipple.

    Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth, called a "rocker. A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved. Art historian Ellis Waterhouse wrote of it as "a touchstone by which we can interpret the whole of Ribera's art".

    Commissioned by a Flemish dealer, the painting features a Neapolitan beggar boy with a deformed foot. Behind him is a vast and luminous landscape, against which the boy stands with a gap-toothed grin, wearing earth-toned clothes and holding his crutch slung over his left shoulder.

    This is one of the painter's last works, and one of the most bitter. The painting was completed in , at the peak of the Dutch Golden Age. It depicts the eponymous company moving out, led by Captain Frans Banning Cocq dressed in black, with a red sash and his lieutenant, Willem van Ruytenburch dressed in yellow, with a white sash. With effective use of sunlight and shade, Rembrandt leads the eye to the three most important characters among the crowd: the two gentlemen in the centre from whom the painting gets its original title , and the woman in the centre-left background carrying a chicken.

    Behind them, the company's colours are carried by the ensign, Jan Visscher Cornelissen. Workers dig up a skeleton in Flanders. A court physician to the Danish king observes the excavation, measures the skeleton in "Brabantian cubits," and attributes the skeleton to a giant. It will later be identified as a fossil proboscidian. Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer.

    Manchu dynasty established in China; end of the Ming line. The Manchu conquer China ending the Ming Dynasty. The subsequent Qing Dynasty rules until Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage. Peter Stuyvesant appointed governor of New Amsterdam. Christiaan Huygens invents the pendulum and applies its workings to create highly accurate pendulum clocks.

    Franciscus Hackius publishes a lavish book on the natural history and medicines available from Brazil, Historia Naturalis Brasileae. King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death. George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, is imprisoned at Nottingham. Irish archbishop James Ussher calculates the date of creation, based on the ages of biblical prophets.

    Using his calculations, theologians will identify the date of creation as on October 26, BC. It is housed in the Galleria Doria Pamphilj in Rome. The painting is noted for its realism, in that it is an unflinching portrait of a highly intelligent, shrewd but aging man. He is dressed in linen vestments, and the quality of the work is evident in the rich reds of his upper clothing, head-dress, and the hanging curtains.

    A contributing factor for this large advancement in the painter's career was that he had already depicted a number of members of Pamphilj's inner court. Yet the pope remained wary and cautious, and the painting was initially displayed to only his immediate family, and was largely lost from public view through the 17th and 18th centuries. William Harvey publishes Exercitationes de generatione animalium On Animal Generation explaining that all animal life begins as eggs, whether in birds, amphibians or mammals. According to Joseph Needham, in this work Harvey: 1 presented a doctrine of omne vivum ex ovo all life comes from the egg , the first definite statement against the idea of spontaneous generation; 2 denied the possibility of generation from excrement and from mud, and pointed out that even worms have eggs; 3 identified the citricula as the point in the yolk from which the embryo develops and the blastoderm surrounding the embryo; 4 destroyed once and for all the Aristotelian semen-blood and Epicurean semen-semen theories of early embryogeny; and 5 settled the long controversy about which parts of the egg were nutritive and which was formative, by demonstrating the unreality of the distinction.

    Massachusetts requires all black and Indian servants to receive military training. Rhode Island passes laws restricting slavery and forbidding enslavement for more than 10 years. The work belongs to the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Netherlands. The feeder consists of two half rings and a blue container. The bird is sitting on the top ring, to which it is chained by its foot. In the 17th century, goldfinches were popular pets because they could be trained to draw water from a bowl with a miniature bucket. The Dutch title of the painting pertains to the bird's nickname puttertje, which refers to this custom and translates literally as 'little weller'.

    After three months, the Nominated Assembly passes a motion to dissolve itself and Cromwell establishes the Protectorate. Aristotle, world-weary, looks at the bust of blind, humble Homer, on which he rests one of his hands. This has variously been interpreted as the man of sound, methodical science deferring to Art, or as the wealthy and famous philosopher, wearing the jeweled belt given to him by Alexander the Great, envying the life of the poor blind bard. It has also been suggested that this is Rembrandt's commentary on the power of portraiture.

    A Virginia court grants blacks the right to hold slaves. Scotland incorporated with the English Commonwealth. Otto von Guericke invents a vacuum pump consisting of a piston and an air gun cylinder with two-way flaps designed to pull air out of whatever vessel it was connected to, and used it to investigate the properties of the vacuum in many experiments.

    Guericke demonstrated the force of air pressure with dramatic experiments. In , he machined two inch diameter hemispheres and pumped all the air out of them, locking them together with a vacuum seal. The air pressure outside held the halves together so tightly that sixteen horses, eight harnessed to each side of the globe, could not pull the halves apart. It would have required more than 4, pounds of force to separate them.

    The island of Jamaica is captured from the Spaniards by the English. Danish scholar Ole Worm publishes Musei Wormiani Historia , a successful book about his cabinet of natural curiosities. Painting by Rembrandt : The Polish Rider depicts a young man traveling on horseback through a murky landscape.

    When the painting was sold by Zdzislaw Tarnowski to Henry Frick in , there was consensus that the work was by the Dutch painter Rembrandt. This attribution has since been contested, though this remains a minority view. There has also been debate over whether the painting was intended as a portrait of a particular person, living or historical, and if so of whom, or if not, what it was intended to represent. Both the quality of the painting and its slight air of mystery are commonly recognized, though parts of the background are very sketchily painted or unfinished.

    It has been in the collection of the Louvre in Paris since A similar painting is in Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, possibly by Rembrandt himself but probably by one of his pupils, perhaps Fabritius. Other similar, paintings attributed to Rembrandt or his circle, are held by museums in Budapest and Philadelphia. Rembrandt made a drawing of a similar scene c. Another, pre, painting of a slaughtered ox the example in Edinburgh, now attributed to Rembrandt's circle but formerly to Rembrandt was perhaps inspired by a lost earlier work by Rembrandt himself.

    In northern Europe, the month of November was traditionally the season slaughtering livestock in northern Europe, before winter made feed difficult to find. The first persecution of Quakers occurs in Massachusetts. Because of these complexities, Las Meninas has been one of the most widely analyzed works in Western painting.

    The painting shows a large room in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid during the reign of King Philip IV of Spain, and presents several figures, most identifiable from the Spanish court, captured, according to some commentators, in a particular moment as if in a snapshot. Some look out of the canvas towards the viewer, while others interact among themselves. The young Infanta Margaret Theresa is surrounded by her entourage of maids of honour, chaperone, bodyguard, two dwarfs and a dog. In the background there is a mirror that reflects the upper bodies of the king and queen.

    Las Meninas has long been recognised as one of the most important paintings in Western art history. The Baroque painter Luca Giordano said that it represents the "theology of painting" and in the president of the Royal Academy of Arts Sir Thomas Lawrence described the work in a letter to his successor David Wilkie as "the true philosophy of the art". Cromwell dies and his son Richard becomes Lord Protector. Jesuit missionary Martino Martini publishes a manuscript explaining that documented Chinese history predates the time generally understood to mark Noah's flood 2, BC.

    Richard Cromwell is pressured into dissolving the Protectorate; the Rump Parliament is restored. John Tradescant deeds his family treasures to fellow collector Elias Ashmole. Ashmole will later donate the collection to Oxford University, stipulating that a separate building is to be constructed for it. End of Puritan rule in England; restoration of the Stuarts. The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration. Foundation of the Royal Society, London, for the promotion of mathematical and physical science.

    For the first time, women began to act in plays in London. Previously men had portrayed both male and female roles. This painting was documented by John Smith in , who wrote: "This grand and affecting picture exhibits the ruins of a church and convent upon the summit of a hill, occupying the whole extent of the view in the second distance, the declivity of which presents a cemetery, interspersed with large stones. On the foreground are a broken tree lying across a rapid stream, a tomb of black marble, with an inscription on it; a row of three sarcophagi extending along the front; and on the left stands a cluster of large umbrageous trees, the verdant hues of whose foliage is contrasted by the leafless trunk of a beech.

    Three persons in black are seen near a small tomb on the side of the hill, musing amidst the tombs. The grandeur and solemnity of the scene is strikingly enhanced by rolling stormy clouds, in which may be perceived the evanescent colours of a rainbow. Robert Boyle publishes The Sceptical Chymist helping to transform alchemy into chemistry. Though an alchemist himself with his own cache of secret notebooks, Boyle begins writing up experiments for use by others.

    Massachusetts reverses a ruling dating back to , which allowed blacks to train in arms. New York, Connecticut, and New Hampshire pass similar laws restricting the bearing of arms. Until the s, most settlers in the region are small landowners from Barbados. In Gloucester County, Virginia the first documented slave rebellion in the colonies takes place. German physician Otto von Guericke pieces together bones from different species to make a fossil "unicorn.

    Maryland is the first colony to take legal action against marriages between white women and black men. The State of Maryland mandates lifelong servitude for all black slaves. In his private museum in Rome, Virgilio Romano exhibits a Hippopotamus major canine tooth found in Pleistocene gravels along the Via Nomentana. Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors. It forms a pendant with the Regentesses of the Old Men's Almshouse.

    Though it is no longer known which name belongs with which face, the regents portrayed were Jonas de Jong, Mattheus Everzwijn, dr. Frans Hals painted them in his "loose style", with rough brush strokes. The painting is traditionally dated , though no archival evidence has yet been found to confirm this. The date is chosen as the middle of the term that the sitters served as regents. Though the paintings as pendants seem to belong together, they did not hang together, and as was the case in the St.

    Elisabeth hospital across the street, they probably each hung in a separate regents' meeting room; the one for the ladies in the ladies' meeting room and the one for the men in the men's meeting room. Robert Hooke observes cork under a microscope and uses the word cells to describe the tiny chambers that he sees. He publishes drawings of these cells, of fleas, and of other small creatures, in his book Micrographia.

    Painting by Rembrandt The Jewish Bride. Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator that will add and subtract. Virginia declares that Christian baptism will not alter a person's status as a slave. Niels Stensen Steno describes his dissection of the head of a giant white shark and correctly identifies shark teeth, still generally thought despite arguments to the contrary from Rondelet and Colonna in the preceding century to be serpent tongues.

    Milton's Paradise Lost is published. Svetlana Alpers describes it as unique and ambitious; Walter Liedtke "as a virtuoso display of the artist's power of invention and execution, staged in an imaginary version of his studio Its composition and iconography make it the most complex Vermeer work of all. The Mission of Sault Ste. Marie, in what will become Michigan, is founded by Father Marquette.

    Natural historian John Somner finds woolly rhino teeth near Canterbury in Kent, and figures they might be the remains of a sea monster. John Somner. Francesco Redi publishes Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Experiments on the Generation of Insects , which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science. At the time, prevailing wisdom was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat. Redi took six jars and divided them into two groups of three: In one experiment, in the first jar of each group, he put an unknown object; in the second, a dead fish; in the last, a raw chunk of veal.

    Redi covered the tops of the first group of jars with fine gauze so that only air could get into it. He left the other group open. After several days, he saw maggots appear on the objects in the open jars, on which flies had been able to land, but not in the gauze-covered jars. In the second experiment, meat was kept in three jars. One of the jars was uncovered, and two of the jars were covered, one with cork and the other one with gauze. Flies could only enter the uncovered jar, and in this, maggots appeared. In the jar that was covered with gauze, maggots appeared on the gauze but did not survive.

    Knowing full well the terrible fates of out-spoken thinkers such as Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei, Redi was careful to express his new views in a manner that would not contradict theological tradition of the Church; hence, his interpretations were always based on biblical passages, such as his famous adage: omne vivum ex vivo "All life comes from life".

    Jan Swammerdam dissects a caterpillar for Cosimo de Medici, demonstrating that the butterfly wings already exist inside the caterpillar's body. A year later, he will publish Historia Insectorum Generalis. Robert Hooke presents a lecture to the Royal Society claiming that earthquakes, not the biblical flood, have caused fossils to be found on mountaintops and buried in stone. Niels Stensen Steno publishes Forerunner, showing diagrammatic sections of the Tuscany area geology, making the important point that sediments are deposited in horizontal layers.

    Painting by Willem Kalf : Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar is a sumptuous still life displaying the sort of costly wares that flowed through the Netherlands during its heyday as a trade center. In Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, Kalf selected an array of precious objects with which to showcase the wealth and refinement of the Netherlands and his own skills as a painter.

    Everything is expensive, imported, or both. The citrus fruit, glassware from Venice, and Chinese porcelain jar are evidence of Dutch sailors' enterprise. Local talent is displayed by Dutch silver and a rummer, or wineglass, with a cherub holding a cornucopia at its base. They stand on a marble tabletop with a carelessly crumpled oriental rug. Amid all that luxury is a lesson: a ticking watch on the silver platter reminds the viewer that such earthly riches are fleeting, and worth far less than eternal salvation.

    The carefully balanced composition, rich colors, and warm tonalities make this painting an object of beauty as well as moral edification. The State of Virginia prohibits free blacks and Indians from keeping Christian i. Agostino Scilla publishes Vain Speculation Undeceived by Sense arguing for the organic origin of fossils. The book describes Newton's analytic methods, which would now be called calculus.

    Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents the Staffelwalze stepped drum, or stepped reckoner , the first mechanical calculator that could perform all four mathematical operations. Its intricate precision gearwork, however, was somewhat beyond the fabrication technology of the time; mechanical problems, in addition to a design flaw in the carry mechanism, prevented the machines from working reliably. Despite the mechanical flaws, it suggested possibilities to future calculator builders.

    The operating mechanism, invented by Leibniz, called the stepped cylinder or Leibniz wheel, was used in many calculating machines for years, and into the s with the Curta hand calculator. In discussing his invention, Leibniz wrote Indignum enim est excellentium virorum horas servii calculandi labore perire, qui Machina adhibita vilissimo cuique secure transcribi posset — For it is unworthy of distinguished men to waste their time with slavish calculations, which can be done safely with the use of this machine by anyone else.

    Apothecary and antiquary John Conyers finds an elephant tusk and a nearby handaxe about 12 feet below ground at Gray's Inn Lane, London. The Gray's Inn Lane handaxe will later be dated at , years old. Leeuwenhoek begins corresponding with the Royal Society of London describing his discoveries under the microscope. New York declares that blacks who convert to Christianity after their enslavement will not be freed. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek creates a simple microscope with only one lens. He developed glass-handling techniques that allowed him to create lenses with magnifying power up to x — by far the most powerful magnifying lenses available.

    Although compound microscopes had been invented in the s, nearly forty years before Leeuwenhoek was born, there were technical difficulties in building them, meaning that early compound microscopes such as used by Robert Hooke had a maximum magnification of only 20x or 30x. Leeuwenhoek's more powerful lenses allowed him to discover protozoa and other single-celled organisms and to be the first to observe bacteria. Painting by Jan Steen : Merrymaking at an Inn combines the Flemish tradition of low-life tavern scenes with the more elegant Dutch merry companies.

    The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the English name Philip due to the friendly relations between his father and the Mayflower Pilgrims. The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April The war was the single greatest calamity to occur in seventeenth century Puritan New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of European settlement in North America in proportion to the population.

    In the space of little more than a year, twelve of the region's towns were destroyed and many more damaged, the colony's economy was all but ruined, and its population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Indians. By early July, over had surrendered to the colonists, and Metacomet took refuge in the Assowamset Swamp below Providence, close to where the war had started.

    The colonists formed raiding parties of militia and Indians. They were allowed to keep the possessions of warring Indians and received a bounty on all captives. He was shot and killed by an Indian named John Alderman on August 12, After his death, his wife and nine-year-old son were captured and sold as slaves in Bermuda.

    Philip's head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Fort Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades. His body was cut into quarters and hung in trees. Alderman was given Metacomet's right hand as a reward. In Virginia, black slaves and black and white indentured servants band together to participate in Bacon's Rebellion.

    From the observation that the periods of Jupiter's innermost moon Io appeared to be shorter when the Earth was approaching Jupiter than when receding from it, he concluded that light travels at a finite speed, and estimated that it takes light 22 minutes to cross the diameter of Earth's orbit. The State of Virginia forbids blacks and slaves from bearing arms, prohibits blacks from congregating in large numbers, and mandates harsh punishment for slaves who assault Christians or attempt escape.

    Royal Society member Neremiah Grew examines the "sea serpent teeth" found by John Somner in and recognizes that they are rhino teeth. Amsterdam physician Gerard Blasius publishes Anatome Animalium examining animals' internal anatomy and skeletal structure. The first museum of natural history is established in London. What will become Pennsylvania is colonized by William Penn.

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    Penn founds Philadelphia. Also, with other Friends, Penn purchases East Jersey. Virginia declares that all imported black servants are slaves for life. Peter the Great becomes joint ruler of Russia sole tsar in Neremiah Grew publishes The Anatomy of Plants with microscopic observations of plant features. It is signed, dated with the year, and inscribed with the subject at centre bottom , as Claude sometimes did with his less common subjects. It was Claude's last painting, and is perhaps not quite finished; it therefore does not appear in the Liber Veritatis, where he made drawings to record his finished works.

    His date of birth is uncertain, but he was at least in his late seventies when he painted it, perhaps as old as The Ottoman Empire is defeated in the second Siege of Vienna. Oxford opens the Ashmolean Museum, the world's first public museum. The museum's practice of allowing entry to anyone who pays the admission fee horrifies scholars from continental Europe. Dublin doctor Thomas Molyneux shows that a "giant's tooth" from the collection of Ole Worm really belongs to a whale, and a "giant's hand" shown in London is really the fin of a porpoise.

    Filippo Buonanni publishes Ricreatione dell' occhio e della mente. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz publishes a description of his invention of the differential calculus.

    Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France. King Charles II dies. Timothy Nourse anticaptes eugenics with the argument that a gentleman "ought at least to be as careful of his race as he is of that of his horses, where the fairest and most beautiful are made choice of for breed. He is credited with introducing the idea that the motion of objects in the heavens such as planets, the Sun and the Moon can be described by the same set of physical laws as the motion of objects on the ground like cannon balls and falling apples.

    The Pennsylvania Quakers pass the first formal antislavery resolution. Giovanni Ciampini describes remains of the extinct straight-tusked elephant, Elephas antiquus , found in the town of Vitorchiano in the region of Latium. John Locke publishes his first Letter Concerning Toleration. Its initial publication was in Latin, though it was immediately translated into other languages. Locke's work appeared amidst a fear that Catholicism might be taking over England, and responds to the problem of religion and government by proposing religious toleration as the answer.

    This "letter" is addressed to an anonymous "Honored Sir": this was actually Locke's close friend Philipp van Limborch, who published it without Locke's knowledge. South Carolina passes the first comprehensive slave codes. Virginia passes the first anti-miscegenation law, forbidding marriages between whites and blacks or whites and Native Americans. Virginia prohibits the manumission of slaves within its borders. Manumitted slaves are forced to leave the colony.

    The colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts are united. Naturalist John Ray publishes Three Physicotheological Discourses about the Creation, the Deluge and the Conflagration , discussing conflicting theories about the nature of fossils. Rice cultivation is introduced into Carolina. Slave importation increases dramatically. Painting by Rachel Ruysch : Flowers on a Ledge. Ruysch's skill lay in the minute observation of each flower in a totally realistic way which is then composed into an elaborate arrangement which would be very difficult to achieve in nature, as the flowers would not support each other so well under such an arrangement.

    In common with most flower pieces from the last third of the 17th century, the colors of the flowers are much more carefully balanced than in the earlier pictures. Scandinavian historian Olof Rudbeck publishes his attempt to chronologically measure sedimentary deposits, laying the foundations for the field of stratigraphy.

    Edward Lhwyd publishes a description of a "flatfish" in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. The flatfish is really a trilobite, an ancient marine arthropod. Edward Lhwyd publishes a book devoted to British fossils. In it, he describes ichthyosaur remains as those of a fish. Based on a dissection he performed the year before, Edward Tyson publishes Orang Outan, sive Homo sylvestris pointing out similarities between chimpanzee and human anatomy.

    Although he has dissected an infant chimp, Tyson uses the term "orang-outan. Desportes was born in Champigneulle, Ardennes. He also did decorative paintings for the duc de Bourbon at Chantilly.